The economic crisis of 1819 brought severe hardship to much of the United States. Especially in the western states, voters demanded “relief”: moratoriums on debt prosecutions and foreclosures along with the creation of public banks to increase the money supply. Andrew Jackson was appalled. He demanded what he called “justice” for “honest creditors,” citing clauses in both state and federal constitutions that prohibited any such interference into the economy. By the early 1820s, a new consensus among national-level politicians and state judges set up news walls against relief measures. How Jackson nonetheless became the “voice of the people” and President in 1829 is the subject of this talk.