The lecture shows the policy implications for the end of the Cold War by analyzing ways in which recalcitrant states can be persuaded to change. It suggests international shaming can be effective-wish-full member of international community. It explores how activists can maintain momentum despite changes in political leadership. It demonstrates that human contacts are a means to bridging political, ideological, military, and economic divides. It also highlights how an issue can gain salience through personalization as Western human rights activists and politicians made the plight of Eastern European dissidents more immediate to a wider public. Snyder answers the question, how did the 1975 Helsinki Final Act, which was a voluntary agreement quickly dismissed by many international participants and commentators, come to play such an influential role in the end of the Cold War? She shows how several structural aspects of the document led to its surprising strength, and a number of developments in the years that followed fostered a process that offered opportunities to use the Helsinki Final Act to realize change in Europe.