Questions of belonging rest at the heart of the modern liberal democratic state. What does belonging mean? Who belongs? Does belonging depend on there being others who do not belong? What is their relationship to the polity? Does it matter what the basis for belonging is, what the defining characteristics of belonging are? Who decides? What does law have to do with it? The answers to these questions are critical in establishing who can make claims on the polity and who cannot; on relationships among those who live in a policy; and in making a population a people. They highlight what I call the “borders of belonging.” Weisenfeld traces the borders of belonging through the long nineteenth century focusing especially on race, gender, and disability.